Catalans walked on demonstrations on Sunday to support separation from Spain. Local leaders want to break in the next year despite legal blocks by the central government.
In five cities across Catalonia, including region’s capital Barcelona, people gathered in protests for independence.
According to police, only in Barcelona about 540,000 people went on rally on Catalonia's national day, La Diada.
The demonstration comes after the pro-independence local assembly vows to press ahead with plans to form a new state in 2017, raising pressure on leaders in Madrid to respond at a time of disarray in national politics.
The situation becomes more urgent as Spain is going to face third election during nine month as government failed to reach majority. But it is unclear whether Catalan regional leaders will manage to produce the break they have promised.
The long-simmering separatist movement, in a region that produces about a fifth of Spain's economic output, erupted in 2012 during a deep economic crisis and a stand-off with Madrid over demands for more autonomy.
Catalonia, home to 7.5 million people, has its own language and distinct culture, as well as a long-standing industrial tradition and a thriving tourism sector.